Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry
Why prioritize this sector?
Although rural women greatly contribute and have vital roles in the Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (AFF) sector, they are still marginalized in terms of employment, income, land ownership, access to resources, basic services and participation and decision-making.
According to the data of the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA), from 2007 to 2016, women comprise about 25% of workers in the agricultural sector. However, official data may not accurately capture women’s work in agriculture as it is normally considered to be extensions of their household tasks and therefore not reported as “work.” For this reason, despite recognition in policies, women continue to be unaccounted to agriculture work when in fact, they continue to participate in unpaid family work in agriculture in larger numbers as compared to men.
Nominal and real wage rates of women in the agriculture sector are considerable lower than men. The 2015 data show that the daily nominal wage rate of men is higher by 21 pesos compared to women while the difference in terms of real wage rates is 15 pesos (PSA, 2016).
From 2000 to 2015, the cumulative total of agrarian reform beneficiaries (ARBs), which had been awarded emancipation titles, was 415,741, of which only 13.8% are women (PSA 2016). In 2015, the percent share of women was 35%–the highest percentage share of women ARBs of emancipated patents since 2000. In the same period, only 32% of ARBs with Certificate of Land Ownership Agreements are women.
The membership in agrarian reform cooperatives is almost equal between men and women as stated in the 2016 data. However, among the 371,409 total ARB members, 38% are women while 62% are men, reflecting the fact that majority of ARBs are men (DAR 2016).
Priority Gender Issues
• Unequal access and control of women and men in AFF to income, productive resources, credit, land rights and ownership, technical training, extension services, and fair markets.
• Limited meaningful participation of women in AFF in the decision–making process and agriculture leadership at all levels.
• Unequal distribution of unpaid care work/ household / domestic work that result in less time and opportunity for women to engage in agricultural/ fisheries/ forestry work.
• Role of Women farmers/ fisherfolk/ foresters in agricultural/ fisheries/ forestry work insufficiently recognized.
• Lack of accurate, regular and harmonized data and gender research within the AFF sector.